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Title: A Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition and Local Dominance
Authors: Yingyu Zhang , Discounts For Sale N Buy Cheap Buy 61Rv6
Comments: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1803.06282 , arXiv:1806.10950
Subjects: Neural and Evolutionary Computing (cs.NE)

Many-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs), especially the decomposition-based MOEAs, have attracted wide attention in recent years. Recent studies show that a well designed combination of the decomposition method and the domination method can improve the performance ,i.e., convergence and diversity, of a MOEA. In this paper, a novel way of combining the decomposition method and the domination method is proposed. More precisely, a set of weight vectors is employed to decompose a given many-objective optimization problem(MaOP), and a hybrid method of the penalty-based boundary intersection function and dominance is proposed to compare local solutions within a subpopulation defined by a weight vector. A MOEA based on the hybrid method is implemented and tested on problems chosen from two famous test suites, i.e., DTLZ and WFG. The experimental results show that our algorithm is very competitive in dealing with MaOPs. Subsequently, our algorithm is extended to solve constraint MaOPs, and the constrained version of our algorithm also shows good performance in terms of convergence and diversity. These reveals that using dominance locally and combining it with the decomposition method can effectively improve the performance of a MOEA.

Title: Emergent Democracy
Authors: Joichi Ito
Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph) ; Computers and Society (cs.CY); Networking and Internet Architecture (cs.NI)

This essay argues that a new form of democracy - an "Emergent Democracy" - will develop as a result of the use of Internet communication tools and platforms such as blogs. The essay explores a variety of tools available and explores the history of democracy, modern experiments with democracy and how these tools might support democracy. The essay also explores concerns as these new tools emerge. These issues include concerns such as privacy and the societally negative use of these tools by corporations, totalitarian regimes and terrorists.

Title: Modeling and Analysis of Cascading Failures in Interdependent Cyber-Physical Systems
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Lace Stilettos Heel Toe AIYOUMEI Spike Brown Boots Knee High Round Women's Winter up Nubuck Subjects: Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph) ; Systems and Control (cs.SY)

Integrated cyber-physical systems (CPSs), such as the smart grid, are increasingly becoming the underpinning technology for major industries. A major concern regarding such systems are the seemingly unexpected large-scale failures, which are often attributed to a small initial shock getting escalated due to intricate dependencies within and across the individual counterparts of the system. In this paper, we develop a novel interdependent system model to capture this phenomenon, also known as cascading failures. Our framework consists of two networks that have inherently different characteristics governing their intra-dependency: i) a cyber-network where a node is functional as long as it belongs to the largest connected (i.e., giant) component; and ii) a physical network where nodes are given an initial flow and a capacity, and failure of a node results with redistribution of its flow to the remaining nodes, upon which further failures might take place due to overloading (i.e., the flow of a node exceeding its capacity). Furthermore, it is assumed that these two networks are inter-dependent. For simplicity, we consider a one-to-one interdependency model where every node in the cyber-network is dependent upon and supports a single node in the physical network, and vice versa. We provide a thorough analysis of the dynamics of cascading failures in this interdependent system initiated with a random attack. The system robustness is quantified as the surviving fraction of nodes at the end of cascading failures, and is derived in terms of all network parameters involved (e.g., degree distribution, load/capacity distribution, failure size, etc.). Analytic results are supported through an extensive numerical study. Among other things, these results demonstrate the ability of our model to capture the unexpected nature of large-scale failures and provide insights on improving system robustness.

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English for All: Advice for Students and Teachers

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Content-Based Language Instruction is popular in university and college academic settings for English language instruction. Content-Based Language Teaching is also used in primary and secondary educational settings in a variety of EFL and ESL settings, including full immersion environments and as supplements to content or foreign language learning in a bilingual setting. This article defines content-based instruction implemented as the foundation of an intensive English language program and how such a framework possibly helps accelerate language learning.

Stilettos Boots Toe AIYOUMEI Winter Lace Heel High Spike Brown Women's Nubuck Knee Round up Look at today’s ESL/EFL textbooks. Most present English learning within topics, or themes. We could argue that this is content-based instruction. Many academic ESL classes use these content-based texts for learning English. Topics range from basic every day situations such as going to the grocery store, to more academic content such as environmental issues or psychology. So what makes this content-based instruction? Is it enough just to present language in a topic area or theme?

Content-Based Instruction can be viewed along a continuum, from focusing on the language and language learning itself to a focus on using language to navigate and learn a content ( Content-Based Second Language Instruction, Brinton, Snow, and Wesche ). That continuum is often defined by the level of language skill of the students. What is important to note is that at each point on the continuum, it is essential to have support from an instructor with experience in language teaching and CBLI.

To illustrate the continuum of content-based instruction, let’s take a look at what typically happens in an academic university ESL program using content-based instruction from beginning level to advanced:

Beginning to intermediate levels – these courses are typically taught with themes as the content or context for learning English. In academic settings, these will include the use of textbook series which provide chapters around different themes. Some popular textbook series which are used in the United States include the following:

Beginning to intermediate levels

These types of textbooks provide relevant every day and academic content themes to promote development of English language skills and grammar through context. A class will consist of instruction around three to four different theme areas.

Advanced Courses – students who have a strong knowledge of the basics of English can benefit from courses designed as “shelter courses.” These are courses which focus on one content just as any university or academic course might. However, they are taught by experienced English teachers, who many times develop the content of the course themselves. They may use an unabridged college textbook as the core resource for the class. For example, in our program, Academic English Studies , instructors have designed a number of content-based courses for the intermediate to advanced levels. Instructors have developed content-based courses in sociology, technology and society, American culture through film, and leadership and organizations, just to name a few. These courses range from six to fifteen weeks in length. Students are able to test their English and critical thinking skills while developing language and knowledge of a subject area. Focus is on developing English skills within the academic content, integrating all aspects of language learning: reading, writing, speaking, listening, and grammar use. There is a heavy focus on developing English language to be able to express progressively more complex ideas and critical thinking. In sheltered courses there can be an emphasis on the content while also supporting development of language needed to be productive at an advanced level of English in the subject area.

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